In this way the position of a planet in respect to the horizon and meridian of the place of birth assumed more significance than the position of the planet along the ecliptic. Instead of the houses being projected onto the zodiac, the signs and houses were viewed in relation to the houses. There is one problem with the space systems and that is that at higher latitudes where the angle of the ecliptic become more acute, the house cusps become more unequal to an extreme.
The Regiomontanus System is a modification of the Campanus system. The celestial equator is divided into equal arcs of 30 degrees and projected onto the ecliptic. This places the emphasis on the earths own daily rotation. It is thought all the space systems give the chart a more Lunar influence. They include some subconscious aspects of the personality. The Time Systems: The house cusps are found by equally dividing the time it takes for a point i.
Examples are Alcabitus, Placidus, Koch, Topocentric. Placidus System: The 11th and 12th house cusps are found by trisecting the time it takes any degree of the ecliptic to travel from the Asc. And likewise the time it takes any degree to travel from the IC to the Asc. Whole Sign, Equal, and Vehlow houses are all examples of zodiacal, same size systems. Whole Sign Houses: The whole sign house system equates each house with one of the zodiac signs.
The rising degree is calculated, but the entirety of that sign is said to be the first house. One of the more awkward characteristics of the whole sign house system is that the angles become divorced from the cusps of their houses.
The midheaven degree can potentially be in the eleventh, tenth, or ninth houses. This removes some of the difficulty inherent in interpreting charts set for more northerly regions of the globe. Whole sign houses still suffer from the irregularity and astronomical quirks of casting a chart for regions around the Arctic Circle, though. It does pose a neat solution to some of these issues, but it does so due to the freedom given to it by being divorced from astronomical reference points in the ways that other house systems are not.
There is currently debate over whether or not whole sign houses were the first or original system of house division. Equal Houses: This system calculates the Ascendant degree and uses the same degree of the other signs for the intermediate house cusps. This means that the midheaven degree will not coincide with the tenth house cusp in a majority of cases.
The tenth house cusp will be the position of the nonagesimal which does anchor it to an astronomical point. The equal house system is sometimes called the zenith system in reference to this. There is an alternate version of equal houses that projects from the MC instead of the Ascendant called M-houses.
This would leave the Ascendant as a free floating point, unattached to the horizon. Equal houses solve a lot of the same problems that whole sign houses do in regards to charts cast for more northerly global positions. It maintains the connection between the beginning of the first house and the Ascendant that whole sign houses lack, but the MC will always be unassociated with the tenth house cusp in both systems. There is also debate about whether equal houses is the original or first house system. Vehlow Houses: Created by German astrologer Johannes Vehlow, this system of house division calculates the Ascendant and then constructs the first house around it so that the Ascendant degree is placed directly in the middle.
This degree is then projected to the cusps of the other houses. These two lines cut the chart into four quadrants, hence the name.
Most systems in this group will have the same degrees on the angles, and their differences lie either in how they calculate the position of the intermediary house cusps 12th, 11th, 9th, 8th, etc. Different systems may use different frames of reference, either for philosophical or astronomical reasons. There are also two sub-groups; house systems that are space-based, and those that are time-based. This system is fairly simple in its calculation.
It takes the distance between the degree on the Ascendant and the degree on the Midheaven and divides them into thirds. This same process is carried out between the other angles to find cusps of the houses that come between them. Campanus Houses: Named after Campanus of Novara, but evidence suggests that it was utilized at least years before his time.
This system divides the prime vertical into 12 sections and projects them onto the ecliptic through the prime vertical. This has an interesting effect of being perhaps the most visually and experientially true system of house division. The outcome of this calculation is similar to the division of local space that would occur if you went outside, faced directly south, and held up your arms parallel to the ground to mark the horizon.
Regiomontanus Houses: This system of house division is named after mathematician Johann Muller — better known as Regiomontanus — who popularized its usage by making the tables necessary to calculate them widely available.
The prime vertical is the great circle that rotates in accordance with diurnal motion, and this combination depicts a more meaningful connection between the houses and the apparent rotation of the sky and motion of the planets along their diurnal arc. It seeks to divide the celestial equator and project it onto the ecliptic through the pole of the ecliptic itself. This connects the ecliptic and zodiac to the apparent rotation of the sky, but — because the house system fails to utilize the prime vertical, horizon, or any other great circle that connects back to the location of the chart, the Ascendant and MC degrees are divorced from the cusps of the first and tenth houses, making it an unpopular choice.
Meridian Houses: This house system was created by David Cope in the early 20th century and uses virtually the same reference point as the Regiomontanus and Morinus house systems. It similarly uses the meridian to connect a location to the celestial equator, divides the equator into 12 equal sections, and projects that division onto the ecliptic. In this system, the midheaven will coincide with the tenth house cusp, but the Ascendant will not mark the first house cusp. There is also a time-based consideration whether by accident or design of this system, where a planet will take 2 sidereal hours to move from one house cusp to the next in diurnal motion.
Horizon Houses: This system focuses on directionality of space. The four angles of the chart correspond to the four cardinal directions; the first house cusp is directly east of the location, the MC is directly south of the location, etc. The entire celestial sphere is divided up into 12 equal sections and this is projected onto the ecliptic to find the degrees of the house cusps. The degree of the tenth house cusp does correlate with the midheaven degree, but, ironically, the first house cusp does not correlate with the Ascendant degree.
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Alcabitius Houses: From here we leave behind divisions of space and focus more on the house systems that seek to measure and divide time. While most all of the great circles used to calculate house cusps are meant to measure space, some also serve as indirect measurements of time. The prime vertical, for example, is the great circle that is associated with the diurnal journey of the Sun and other planets.
Dividing this circle up also divides up time as the rotation of this great circle carries the Sun from horizon to horizon, implicating the prime vertical as the vehicle for both daylight and nighttime hours. The Alcabitius house system focuses on determining the length of time it takes for a specific degree of the zodiac to move from one location the Ascendant to another the Midheaven. The journey of a degree from one angle to the following angle in diurnal motion Ascendant to Midheaven, Midheaven to Descendant, etc is called a semi-arc.
Alcabitius is also sometimes referred to as the Alcabitius Semi-Arc method because of its heavy utilization of the semi-arc measurements. The time it takes to complete the semi-arc is divided into three, and the zodiacal degree on the midheaven at the one-third and two-thirds completed times would be the degrees on the 11th and 12th house cusps.
This reliance on the semi-arc of the Ascendant degree makes Alcabitius sensitive to location, as degrees will rise with slightly different speeds depending on geographical location. Koch Houses: The Koch system is a more modern system, invented by Walter Koch sometime in the early s. Koch houses are modified version of Alcabitius. Instead of focusing on the semi-arc of the Ascendant degree like Alcabitius does, Koch focuses on the past semi-arc of the Midheaven degree at birth. Instead of looking to see how long it takes the Ascendant degree to rise to the Midheaven, Koch looks to the Midheaven degree and determines how long it took for that degree of the zodiac to get to the Midheaven from the Ascendant.
Essentially, it determines how much time has passed since the degree on the Midheaven was the Ascendant degree. At first, this sounds like Koch and Alcabitius ought to arrive to the same calculations, but different degrees and signs of the zodiac do not all rise within the same amount of time. We are told that there are 12 signs and that all 12 signs rise over the Ascendant in one 24 hour period, therefore it takes 2 hours for each sign to rise over the Ascendant.
This is not the case. Due to the obliquity - or These are reversed in the southern hemisphere.
Signs of long ascension take longer than the two hour average to rise over the horizon with Virgo and Libra taking about two and a half hours. Signs of short ascension take under two hours with Pisces and Aries being the quickest signs rising in just about an hour and fifteen minutes. This is what makes the Koch house calculations a little different from Alcabitius. They are tracking different degrees with their own, unique rising times. This is how Koch and Alcabitius get very different calculations.
House (astrology) - Wikipedia
Placidus Houses: Named after 17th century mathematician and astrologer Placidus de Titis - but actually used before his birth - the Placidus system is sometimes referred to as the Ptolemaic house system. Placidus is the dynamic time system of house division while Alcabitius and Koch are static time systems. They seek to track the movement of degrees through their semi-arc with the assumption that those degrees cover the same distance of the sky.
The celestial equator is divided into twelve, and these divisions are projected on to the ecliptic along great circles that take in the north and south points on the horizon.